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April 5, 2014

Indiana Limited Liablity Companies and the Required Formalities

iStock_000034659194Small.jpgA primary reason to organize a business as a corporation or a limited liability company (LLC) is to protect the owners from personal liability for the debts of the business. Sometimes, however, a court may "pierce the corporate veil" of a business to hold the owners of the business personally liable for the company's obligations.

In deciding whether to pierce the corporate veil, Indiana courts examine and weigh several factors, including whether the owners of the business have observed the required formalities for the particular form of organization. One of the reasons we generally favor LLCs for small businesses is that there are fewer required formalities for LLCs than for corporations, which in turn means that there is not only a lower administrative burden associated with LLCs, but also fewer opportunities for business owners to miss something. However, there are a few requirements, discussed below.

1. An Indiana LLC must have written articles of organization, and the articles must be filed with the Indiana Secretary of State .

There's almost no need to mention this one because an LLC does not even exist until its articles of organization are filed with the Secretary of State, but for the sake of being complete . . .

The articles of organization must state:

  • The name of the LLC, which must include "limited liability company," "LLC," or "L.L.C."
  • The name of the LLC's registered agent and the address of its registered office (discussed in more detail below).
  • Either that the LLC will last in perpetuity or the events upon which the LLC will be dissolved.
  • Whether the LLC will be managed by its members or by managers. (Technically, the articles can remain silent on this point, in which case the LLC will be managed by its members, but the Secretary of State's forms call for a statement one way or the other.)

2. An Indiana LLC must have a registered agent and a registered office within the State of Indiana.

The purpose of this requirement is to give people who sue the LLC a way to serve the complaints and summons. The registered office must be located within Indiana, and it must have a street address. A post office box is not sufficient. The registered agent must be an individual, a corporation, an LLC, or a non-profit corporation whose business address is the same as the registered office's address.

The registered office and registered agent must be identified in the articles of incorporation and in the business entity reports (discussed below) filed every other year with the Indiana Secretary of State, but the requirement to have a registered office and registered agent applies all the time, not just when those filings are made. If the LLC's registered agent resigns, the LLC must name a new one and file a notice with the Secretary of State within 60 days.

In addition, LLCs formed after July 1, 2014, are required to file the registered agent's written consent to serve as registered agent or a representation that the registered agent has consented. That new requirement was established by Senate Bill 377, passed by the 2014 General Assembly and signed into law by the governor.

3. An Indiana LLC must keep its registered agent informed of the name, business address, and business telephone number of a natural person who is authorized to receive communications from the registered agent.

This is another new requirement contained in Senate Bill 377. It takes effect on July 1, 2014.

4. An Indiana LLC must maintain certain records at its principal place of business.

The required records are:

• A list of the names and addresses of current and former members and managers of the LCC.
• A copy of the articles of organization and all amendments.
• Copies of the LLC's tax returns and financial statements for the three most recent years (or, if no tax returns or statements were prepared, copies of the information that was or should have been supplied to the members so they could file their tax returns).
• Copies of any written operating agreements and amendments, including those no longer in effect.
• A statement of all capital contributions made by all members.
• A statement of the events upon which members will be required to make additional capital contributions.
• The events, if any, upon which the LLC would be dissolved.
• Any other records required by the operating agreement.

[Note: Ind. Code 23-18-4-8(e) provides that the failure to keep the above records is NOT grounds for imposing personal liability on members for the obligations of the LLC. It's more likely to become an issue in the event of a dispute among the members. Thanks to Josh Hollingsworth of Barnes & Thornburg for reminding me. MS:4/7/2014].

5. An Indiana LLC must file a business entity report with the Secretary of State every two years.

The report is due at the end of the month that contains an even-numbered anniversary of the filing of the articles of organization. Failure to file the report within 60 days of the due date is grounds for administrative dissolution of the LLC.

Continue reading "Indiana Limited Liablity Companies and the Required Formalities" »

January 28, 2013

Letter About Annual Minutes is a Scam -- but Notice About Business Entity Reports is Not!

iStock_000011065644XSmall.jpgThe Indiana Secretary of State has issued a warning about a deceptive letter being received by some Indiana businesses. The letter asks for a fee -- typically $125 or $150 -- to cover the processing of the minutes of a corporation's annual meeting. It is designed to appear as if it is from a state agency, the "Indiana Corporate Compliance Business Division," and it includes a citation to a fictitious law. In fact, it is not from a state agency, and there is no requirement to pay any such fees to the state.

If you receive a letter like the one described above, ignore it. If you have already responded to a letter like this, you may contact the Business Services Division of the Indiana Secretary of State's office at (317) 232-6576.

However, if you receive a letter from the Indiana Secretary of State's office informing you that a business entity report is due by the end of the following month, DO NOT IGNORE IT!

Indiana business corporations and limited liability companies are required to submit a business entity report every two years during the month of the anniversary of the filing of the articles of incorporation or articles of organization. For example, if your articles of incorporation or articles of organization were filed in April of an even-numbered year, a business entity report is due in April of every even-numbered year.

Indiana nonprofit corporations are required to file business entity reports (even though a nonprofit corporation is not usually considered to be a "business") every year in the month of the anniversary of the filing of the articles of incorporation. If the articles of incorporation of your nonprofit were filed in August, a business entity report is due every August.

Business entity reports may be filed on paper or online. The filing fee for business corporations and limited liability companies is $30, and the fee for nonprofits is $10. In both instances, modest discounts are given for filing online.

The Secretary of State's office sends out reminder notices near the end of the month before your business entity report is due, but do not rely on those letters as your only reminder. Because the reports are due even if you do not receive the letter, you should make sure the report is placed on your compliance calendar.

If your organization does not file its business entity reports on time, it is subject to administrative dissolution by the Secretary of State. If that happens, it is possible to have your corporation or LLC reinstated, but the process can be time consuming. It's far better to stay in compliance to begin with.

Continue reading "Letter About Annual Minutes is a Scam -- but Notice About Business Entity Reports is Not!" »

February 17, 2011

Just what IS a limited liability company? Part 4. It's a separate legal entity.

[This is the fourth post in a seven-part series discussing the characteristics of limited liability companies and comparing them to the characteristics of corporations, general partnerships, and sole proprietorships. Here's the entire list.

Part 1. Background on sole proprietorships.
Part 2. Background on partnerships.
Part 3. Background on corporations.
Part 4. LLCs are distinct legal entities, separate from their owners.
Part 5. A limited liability company's owners are not liable for the LLC's obligations.
Part 6. Options for an LLC's management structure.
Part 7. Options for an LLC's tax treatment.]

iStock_000005422636XSmall.jpgTo set the background for a discussion of the basics of limited liability companies, we've discussed sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. As we'll see, a limited liability company shares some characteristics with corporations and other characteristics with sole proprietorships (if the LLC has one owner, called a member) or partnerships (if the LLC has more than one member).

The first thing to recognize about a limited liability company is that it is a separate legal entity, apart from its owners. How does that compare to the other structures? First, a sole proprietorship is NOT a separate legal entity apart from its owner. If you're running a business as a sole proprietorship, you really ARE the business, and the business is you.

At the other end of the spectrum, a corporation is a distinct legal entity, completely separate from its shareholders. For example a corporation can sue and be sued in its own name, It can enter into contracts in its own name. And it can go into bankruptcy without dragging its owners with it.

In the middle of the spectrum is a partnership. Without getting into all the details, I'll just say that for some purposes a partnership has the characteristics of a separate legal entity, and for other purposes a partnership is treated more like the aggregate of all the partners.

So in this sense, a limited liability company is just like a corporation. It is a separate legal entity, apart from its members. It can sue and be sued; it can enter into contracts; and it can go into bankruptcy, all apart from its members. And all that is true even if the LLC has only a single member.

Next we'll discuss another way that a limited liability company is like a corporation -- the liability shield.

Continue reading "Just what IS a limited liability company? Part 4. It's a separate legal entity." »

January 30, 2011

Just what IS a limited liability company? Part 3. It's not a corporation.

[This is the third post in a seven-part series discussing the characteristics of limited liability companies and comparing them to the characteristics of corporations, general partnerships, and sole proprietorships. Here's the entire list.

Part 1. Background on sole proprietorships.
Part 2. Background on partnerships.
Part 3. Background on corporations.
Part 4. LLCs are distinct legal entities, separate from their owners.
Part 5. A limited liability company's owners are not liable for the LLC's obligations.
Part 6. Options for an LLC's management structure.
Part 7. Options for an LLC's tax treatment.]

iStock_000006606955XSmall.jpgLet's get back to our trek toward a discussion of the basics of limited liability companies. The first two types of business structures we've looked at -- sole proprietorships and partnerships -- have two significant features in common. First, the owner or owners are liable for the obligations of the business. Second, the business itself does not pay taxes. Instead, the income and other tax items are "passed through" to the owner or owners, who pay tax on the income. Things change with corporations, the third type of business structure.

Although corporations are not as old as sole proprietorships or partnerships, business organizations with at least some of the characteristics of corporations have been around for centuries. For example, the oldest corporation in North America, Hudson's Bay Company, was incorporated in 1670.

Perhaps the most important feature of a corporation is that the owners of the corporation -- called stockholders or shareholders -- are NOT liable for the obligations of the business. And that's very good news for people who owned stock in Lehman Brothers, which melted down into the largest bankruptcy in American history. Or, going back a little further to previous record holders, people who owned stock in Enron and Worldcom. Even though the people who owned stock in those corporations may have lost everything they invested, they were not liable to the corporations' creditors, and they did not get pulled into the corporate bankruptcies. That protection against shareholders being held liable for the corporation's obligations is sometimes called a liability shield or a corporate veil, and it doesn't exist for sole proprietorships or general partnerships.

Continue reading "Just what IS a limited liability company? Part 3. It's not a corporation." »